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Nucleophosmin (NPM1,B23) is a putative ribosome assembly factor with a high affinity for peptides containing nuclear localization signals (NLSs). The transport of proteins across the nuclear envelope is a selective, multistep process involving several cytoplasmic factors. Proteins must be recognized as import substrates, dock at the nuclear pore complex and translocate across the nuclear envelope in an ATP-dependent fashion. Several cytosolic and nuclear proteins that are central to this process have been identified. The 38 kDa nuclear protein nucleophosmin is involved in ribosomal assembly and rRNA transport. It is an abundant protein that is highly phosphorylated by Cdc2 kinase during mitosis.