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ADCY3 is an adenylate cyclase (AC) functioning to convert ATP to cAMP in response to signals initiated by activation of Gs-coupled receptors. To date, 10 isoforms of AC have been cloned in mammals. Initially identified in olfactory cilia, ADCY3 is regarded as the olfactory isoform and required for detection of odorants. Recently it has been found that outside of the olfactory epithelium the olfactory-like signaling pathway including AC3 may also have a key role in spermatogenesis and spermatozoa functions. In addition, the ciliary location of AC3 makes it as a prominent marker for primary cilia in brain.AC3 is typically found at 130 kDa in olfactory tissues.In nonolfactory tissues (such as sperm), this protein is reported to migrate with a molecular mass of 55 kDa,occasionally accompanied by additional bands at either 90 or 130 kDa(PMID:9539154).