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ATP5J, also known as coupling factor 6 (CF6), is a soluble integral component of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multi-subunit membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP by utilizing a proton electrochemical gradient. It consists of three domains, namely the extrinsic and intrinsic membrane domains (F1 and F0, respectively) joined by a stalk.CF6 is one of the subunits in the stalk and an essential component for energy transduction. Recently CF6 has also been reported to play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and hypertension. CF6 is first synthesized as an immature form in the cytosol, then transported to the mitochondria by an import signal peptide and becomes an active form with the signal peptide cleaved. Western blot analysis of CF6 demonstrates a single band around 9 kDa to 12 kDa in various tissues including heart, liver, brain and HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells).