|Positive WB detected in||MCF-7 cells, HepG2 cells, LNCaP cells, NIH/3T3 cells, mouse heart tissue|
|Positive IHC detected in||human prostate cancer tissue, mouse ovary tissue|
Note: suggested antigen retrieval with TE buffer pH 9.0; (*) Alternatively, antigen retrieval may be performed with citrate buffer pH 6.0
|Western Blot (WB)||WB : 1:500-1:2000|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||IHC : 1:20-1:200|
|Sample-dependent, check data in validation data gallery|
The immunogen of 22089-1-AP is androgen receptor Fusion Protein expressed in E. coli.
|Tested Reactivity||human, mouse, rat|
|Cited Reactivity||human, mouse|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||androgen receptor fusion protein Ag17291|
|Full Name||androgen receptor|
|Calculated molecular weight||914 aa, 99 kDa|
|Observed molecular weight||75-80 kDa, 100-110 kDa|
|GenBank accession number||BC132975|
|Gene ID (NCBI)||367|
|Purification Method||Antigen affinity purification|
|Storage Buffer||PBS with 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol pH 7.3.|
|Storage Conditions||Store at -20°C. Stable for one year after shipment. Aliquoting is unnecessary for -20oC storage.|
1. What is the molecular weight of AR? Are there any isoforms of AR?
The molecular weight of full-length androgen receptor (AR-B) is 110 kDa. An additional variant, AR-A, has an 87 kDa size and lacks the N-terminal 187 amino acids of AR-A (PMID: 8108393). Recently, more splice variants of AR have been discovered, raising protein products of around 80 kDa length (PMID: 19244107), as well as an AR45 variant of 45 kDa size (PMID: 15634333). AR splice variants differ in their cell line-specific expression (PMID: 24570075).
2. What is the subcellular localization of AR?
AR can be present in either or both of the cytoplasm and nucleus. In androgen-deprived cells, AR is found predominantly in the cytoplasm, while stimulation by androgens causes enrichment of androgen-bound AR in the nucleus. AR shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus and its phosphorylation state has an impact on the subcellular localization (PMID: 16282370).
3. Is AR post-translationally modified?
Post-translational modifications of the AR include phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, SUMOylation, and ubiquitination (PMID: 21820033). These modifications have an impact on receptor stability, activity, and can change the observed molecular weight of the AR.
4. How to study AR signaling in cell culture?
It is important to control levels of cell stimulation while also looking at AR signaling. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) that is typically used in cell culture contains low levels of testosterone that are enough to stimulate the growth of prostate cells (PMID: 19676093), including the LNCaP cell line that is a commonly used human prostatic carcinoma cell model (PMID: 6831420). One possibility for complete testosterone deprivation is to use charcoal stripped FBS that removes lipophilic agents, including androgens. It is also not recommended to use phenol red in your medium because it is a weak estrogen (PMID: 3458212). Cell stimulation is often conducted by dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
5. What is the role of AR in prostate cancer?
AR plays a key role in the development and physiology of the prostate gland, and also cancer progression (PMID: 15082523). Mutations in AR altering ligands have been observed. The progression of the prostate cancer depends on AR activity and therefore blocking AR activity or lowering androgen levels is a key step related to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is not a marker of prostate cancer characteristics but is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in patients receiving radical prostatectomy.
J Diabetes Res
Pyruvate-Enriched Oral Rehydration Solution Improves Glucometabolic Disorders in the Kidneys of Diabetic db/db Mice.
miR-323-3p regulates the steroidogenesis and cell apoptosis in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by targeting IGF-1.
Dig Dis Sci
Androgen Receptor Stimulates Hexokinase 2 and Induces Glycolysis by PKA/CREB Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
ETA-mediated anti-TNF-α therapy ameliorates the phenotype of PCOS model induced by letrozole.
Expression of hormone receptors predicts survival and platinum sensitivity of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
The reviews below have been submitted by verified Proteintech customers who received an incentive forproviding their feedback.
Saswati (Verified Customer) (08-20-2019)
This antibody worked in a cell line with a lower expression of AR, when another antibody from another vendor did not work. I am very pleased with its earlier lot.Also, since this is a polyclonal antibody, many bands light up, but in my opinion these are legitimate bands.Also hoping that the quality control keeps good eye from one lot to another., I have yet to use the particular lot# I put in this note.Thanks