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androgen receptor Polyclonal antibody

androgen receptor Polyclonal Antibody for IF, IHC, WB, ELISA

Host / Isotype

Rabbit / IgG

Reactivity

human, mouse, rat

Applications

WB, IHC, IF, ELISA

Conjugate

Unconjugated

Cat no : 22089-1-AP

Synonyms

AIS, androgen receptor, AR, DHTR, Dihydrotestosterone receptor, HUMARA, HYSP1, KD, NR3C4, SBMA, SMAX1, TFM



Tested Applications

Positive WB detected inLNCaP cells, MCF-7 cells, HepG2 cells, NIH/3T3 cells, mouse heart tissue, rat heart tissue
Positive IHC detected inhuman prostate cancer tissue
Note: suggested antigen retrieval with TE buffer pH 9.0; (*) Alternatively, antigen retrieval may be performed with citrate buffer pH 6.0
Positive IF detected inhuman prostate cancer tissue

Recommended dilution

ApplicationDilution
Western Blot (WB)WB : 1:5000-1:50000
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)IHC : 1:200-1:800
Immunofluorescence (IF)IF : 1:50-1:500
Sample-dependent, check data in validation data gallery

Product Information

The immunogen of 22089-1-AP is androgen receptor Fusion Protein expressed in E. coli.

Tested Reactivity human, mouse, rat
Cited Reactivityhuman, mouse, rat
Host / Isotype Rabbit / IgG
Class Polyclonal
Type Antibody
Immunogen androgen receptor fusion protein Ag17291
Full Name androgen receptor
Calculated molecular weight 914 aa, 99 kDa
Observed molecular weight 75-80 kDa, 110-120 kDa
GenBank accession numberBC132975
Gene symbol AR
Gene ID (NCBI) 367
Conjugate Unconjugated
Form Liquid
Purification Method Antigen affinity purification
Storage Buffer PBS with 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol pH 7.3.
Storage ConditionsStore at -20°C. Stable for one year after shipment. Aliquoting is unnecessary for -20oC storage.

Background Information

1. What is the molecular weight of AR? Are there any isoforms of AR?

The molecular weight of full-length androgen receptor (AR-B) is 110 kDa. An additional variant, AR-A, has an 87 kDa size and lacks the N-terminal 187 amino acids of AR-A (PMID: 8108393). Recently, more splice variants of AR have been discovered, raising protein products of around 80 kDa length (PMID: 19244107), as well as an AR45 variant of 45 kDa size (PMID: 15634333). AR splice variants differ in their cell line-specific expression (PMID: 24570075).

2. What is the subcellular localization of AR?

AR can be present in either or both of the cytoplasm and nucleus. In androgen-deprived cells, AR is found predominantly in the cytoplasm, while stimulation by androgens causes enrichment of androgen-bound AR in the nucleus. AR shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus and its phosphorylation state has an impact on the subcellular localization (PMID: 16282370).

3. Is AR post-translationally modified?

Post-translational modifications of the AR include phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, SUMOylation, and ubiquitination (PMID: 21820033). These modifications have an impact on receptor stability, activity, and can change the observed molecular weight of the AR.

4. How to study AR signaling in cell culture?

It is important to control levels of cell stimulation while also looking at AR signaling. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) that is typically used in cell culture contains low levels of testosterone that are enough to stimulate the growth of prostate cells (PMID: 19676093), including the LNCaP cell line that is a commonly used human prostatic carcinoma cell model (PMID: 6831420). One possibility for complete testosterone deprivation is to use charcoal stripped FBS that removes lipophilic agents, including androgens. It is also not recommended to use phenol red in your medium because it is a weak estrogen (PMID: 3458212). Cell stimulation is often conducted by dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

5. What is the role of AR in prostate cancer?

AR plays a key role in the development and physiology of the prostate gland, and also cancer progression (PMID: 15082523). Mutations in AR altering ligands have been observed. The progression of the prostate cancer depends on AR activity and therefore blocking AR activity or lowering androgen levels is a key step related to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).


Protocols

Product Specific Protocols
WB protocol for androgen receptor antibody 22089-1-APDownload protocol
IHC protocol for androgen receptor antibody 22089-1-APDownload protocol
IF protocol for androgen receptor antibody 22089-1-APDownload protocol
Standard Protocols
Click here to view our Standard Protocols

Publications

SpeciesApplicationTitle
humanIHC

Cancer Med

The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is not a marker of prostate cancer characteristics but is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in patients receiving radical prostatectomy.

Authors - Zhi Cao
humanWB

Cell Death Dis

N-glycosylation of GDF15 abolishes its inhibitory effect on EGFR in AR inhibitor-resistant prostate cancer cells

Authors - Rong Wang
humanWB,IF

Cell Death Dis

RNF8 up-regulates AR/ARV7 action to contribute to advanced prostate cancer progression.

Authors - Tingting Zhou
mouseWB

J Diabetes Res

Pyruvate-Enriched Oral Rehydration Solution Improves Glucometabolic Disorders in the Kidneys of Diabetic db/db Mice.

Authors - Xiao Meng Zhang
IHC

Trop Anim Health Prod

Effects of testosterone on skin structure and factors related to androgen conversion and binding in Hetian sheep.

Authors - Ruijun Shi
ratWB

Andrologia

Quercetin in Tonglong Qibi decoction ameliorates testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats by regulating Nrf2 signalling pathways and oxidative stress.

Authors - Wei Fu

Reviews

The reviews below have been submitted by verified Proteintech customers who received an incentive forproviding their feedback.


FH

Emma (Verified Customer) (11-29-2021)

We couldn't get this antibody to work by IF on FFPE tissue.

  • Applications: Immunofluorescence
  • Primary Antibody Dilution: 1:20
  • Cell Tissue Type: Prostate
FH

Saswati (Verified Customer) (08-20-2019)

This antibody worked in a cell line with a lower expression of AR, when another antibody from another vendor did not work. I am very pleased with its earlier lot.Also, since this is a polyclonal antibody, many bands light up, but in my opinion these are legitimate bands.Also hoping that the quality control keeps good eye from one lot to another., I have yet to use the particular lot# I put in this note.Thanks

  • Applications: Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry,
  • Primary Antibody Dilution: 1:6000
  • Cell Tissue Type: MDA-MB 231