Androgen receptor (AR) also konwn as Dihydrotestosterone receptor (DHTR), Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4 (NR3C4).It is one of steriod hormoen receptors,
which are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not
phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.Defects in AR are the cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS).Affected males have female external genitalia, female breast development, blind vagina, absent uterus and female adnexa, and abdominal or inguinal testes, despite a normal 46,XY karyotype.Defects in AR are the cause of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy X-linked type 1 (SMAX1). In SMAX1 patients the number of Gln ranges from 38 to 62. Longer expansions result in earlier onset and more severe clinical manifestations of the disease.Defects in AR may play a role in metastatic prostate cancer. The mutated receptor stimulates prostate growth and metastases development despite of androgen ablation. This treatment can reduce primary and metastatic lesions probably by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells when they express the wild-type receptor.Defects in AR are the cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome partial (PAIS). PAIS is characterized by hypospadias, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, genital ambiguity, normal XY karyotype, and a pedigree pattern consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance. Some patients present azoospermia or severe oligospermia without other clinical manifestations.This antibody is a rabbit polyclonal antibody. It can specifically recognize the 110kd AR protein.