What is the calculated molecular weight of IL2?
Where is IL-2 produced?
IL-2 is primarily produced and secreted by CD4+ helper T cells in secondary lymphoid organs. CD8+ T cells, some B cells, and dendritic cells also produce IL-2.
What allows the protein to bind to its receptor?
The N-terminal 20 amino acids are essential for protein-receptor interaction.
What are the post-translational modifications of IL-2?
IL-2 may present glycosylation, yet the function of this modification has not been confirmed.
What is the role of IL-2?
IL-2 is a key immunoregulatory cytokine that promotes proliferation of helper T cells, upregulating its own secretion, while also increasing activity of regulatory T cells and providing negative feedback to its production and the immune response as a whole. IL-2 is also a growth factor for natural killer cells and an upregulator of B cell antibody expression and secretion.
What activates the IL-2 pathway?
Combined T cell antigen receptor and CD28 signals allow for maximum activation of the IL-2 pathway.
How does IL-2 expression change during an immune response?
During an immune response, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells will secrete increased amounts of IL-2 to be consumed by regulatory T cells.
How do the responses to strong and weak IL-2 signals differ?
Strong IL-2 levels promote antigen-specific T cells to differentiate into effector T cells, responding immediately to a stimulus or threat. Weak IL-2 signals, however, result in effector T cells to differentiate into helper or memory T cells.
What negatively regulates IL-2?
Immunoregulatory CD4+CD5+ T cells in inhibit IL-2 production by helper T cells.
(PMIDs: 22343569, 24376444, 15473953)