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Ubiquitin is most famous for its function in targeting proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin needs to be attached to a substrate in chains (polyubiquitylation) before being recognized by proteasome. Similarly, SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) can be linked to substrates in chains (polysumoylation), SUMO modification has been implicated in many important cellular processes including the control of genome stability, signal transduction, targeting to and formation of nuclear compartments, cell cycle and meiosis. There are 4 confirmed SUMO isoforms in human, SUMO-1, SUMO-2, SUMO-3 and SUMO-4. SUMO-2 and SUMO-3 are nearly identical but are distinct from SUMO-1. SUMO2/3 conjugation was recently widely involved in neuroprotective activities. A substitution (M55V) of SUMO4 was strongly associated with the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) involving NF kappa B related mechanisms.This antibody can detect endogenous levels of SUMOylated proteins (e.g. SUMO-1-RanGAP at 80-90 kD).