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Tryptophan hydroxylase 1(TPH1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin in the periphery. Recently, it has been shown that expression of the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene is increased in lungs and pulmonary endothelial cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. It catalyzes the biopterin-dependent monooxygenation of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HT), which is subsequently decarboxylated to form the neurotransmitter serotonin. The protein has low expression.