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Cell Death Dis
Metformin reverses prostate cancer resistance to enzalutamide by targeting TGF-β1/STAT3 axis-regulated EMT.
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|Cell culture supernatant||105%||93%-115%|
TGF-β is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family of cytokines, which are multifunctional peptides that regulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and other functions in many cell types. TGF-β is produced by a number of cell types including regulatory T cells, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. TGF-β acts synergistically with TGFA in inducing transformation. It also acts as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-β plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. TGF-β appears to promote late stage progression and metastasis in some cancers.