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S100A4 is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. The S100 family members have been involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100A4 is known to localize to and function in the nucleus, cytoplasm of cells, and the extracellular space. S100A4 has also been shown to be associated with tumor growth, motility, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and chemoresistance. It is a fibroblast-specific protein associated with mesenchymal cell morphology and motility, is expressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transformations (EMT) in vivo (PMID: 9362334). It is a specific prognostic marker for renal survival in patients with IgAN (PMID: 16105038). It is also an improved marker for lung fibroblasts that could be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis(PMID: 15618458). Overexpression of S100A4 is correlated with a worse prognosis inpatients with various types of cancer.