The TARDBP gene encodes the TDP-43 protein, initially found to repress HIV-1 transcription by binding TAR DNA. TDP-43 has since been shown to bind RNA as well as DNA, and have multiple functions in transcriptional repression, translational regulation and pre-mRNA splicing. For instance, it is reported to regulate alternate splicing of the CTFR gene. In 2006 Neumann et al. found that hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated and/or cleaved forms of TDP-43, collectively known as pathological TDP-43, play a major role in the disease mechanisms of ubiquitin-positive, tau- and alpha-synuclein-negative frontotemporal dementia (FTLD-U) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Proteintech’s 66318-1-Ig antibody is a phospho-dependent monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing phospho-TDP43 (409/410). It does not react with native TDP-43.