Validation Data Gallery
|Positive WB detected in||human placenta tissue, mouse heart tissue, HepG2 cells, K-562 cells, IFN gamma treated A549 cells, A375 cells, human heart tissue, HeLa cells, mouse skeletal muscle tissue|
|Positive IP detected in||mouse heart tissue|
|Positive IHC detected in||human tonsillitis tissue, mouse heart tissue, human stomach cancer tissue|
Note: suggested antigen retrieval with TE buffer pH 9.0; (*) Alternatively, antigen retrieval may be performed with citrate buffer pH 6.0
|Positive IF detected in||HEK-293 cells|
|Positive FC detected in||Raji cells|
|Western Blot (WB)||WB : 1:500-1:1000|
|Immunoprecipitation (IP)||IP : 0.5-4.0 ug for IP and 1:500-1:2000 for WB|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||IHC : 1:300-1:1200|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||IF : 1:10-1:100|
|Sample-dependent, check data in validation data gallery|
17952-1-AP targets PD-L1/CD274 in WB, IP, IHC, IF, FC applications and shows reactivity with human, mouse, rat samples.
|Tested Reactivity||human, mouse, rat|
|Cited Reactivity||human, mouse, rat|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||PD-L1/CD274 fusion protein Ag12432|
|Full Name||CD274 molecule|
|Calculated molecular weight||290 aa, 33 kDa|
|Observed molecular weight||45-56 kDa, 65-70 kDa|
|GenBank accession number||BC074984|
|Gene ID (NCBI)||29126|
|Purification Method||Antigen affinity purification|
|Storage Buffer||PBS with 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol pH 7.3.|
|Storage Conditions||Store at -20°C. Stable for one year after shipment. Aliquoting is unnecessary for -20oC storage.|
PD-L1, also known as CD274 or B7H1, stands for programmed cell death ligand 1. It is a type I transmembrane protein that is thought to repress immune responses by binding to its receptor (PD1), thus inhibiting T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. It contains V-like and C-like immunoglobulin domains. PD-L1 expression is regulated by various cytokines, such as TNF-α or LPS (ISSN: 1848-7718). Increased expression of this protein in certain types of cancers, e.g., renal cell carcinoma or colon cancer, correlates with poor prognosis.
What is the molecular weight of PD-L1?
Depending on the isoform, the calculated molecular weight of the protein varies between 20 and 33 kDa (176-290 aa).
What are the isoforms of PD-L1?
According to NCBI, three different isoforms have been identified. There are significant differences in the untranslated and protein coding regions.
What is the subcellular localization and tissue specificity of PD-L1?
It is predicted to localize in the plasma membrane of various cell types, with a particularly high expression in placental trophoblast and subsets of immune cells. High levels of PD-L1 protein have also been detected in lung and colon tissues.
What is the function of PD-L1 in immune responses?
PD-L1 is critical for the induction and maintenance of immune self-tolerance during infection or inflammation in normal tissues. The interaction of PD-L1 and its receptors is responsible for preventing auto-immune phenotypes and balancing the overall immune response in situations such as pregnancy or tissue allografts. The interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 or B7.1 starts an inhibitory signaling cascade, which results in the decreased proliferation of antigen-specific T-cells and increased survival of regulatory T-cells (PMID: 15240681).
How can PD-L1's implication in cancer be used as a drug target?
In certain tumors, high expression of PD-L1 serves as a stop-sign to inhibit the recognition of cancer cells by T-cells (PMID: 23087408). The interaction between PD-L1 and its receptors (PD1 and B7.1) is a mechanism for the tumor to evade the host immune response (PMID: 29357948). Several mAbs have been developed to target that interaction and thus prevent the inactivation of cytotoxic T-cells by the tumor (PMIDs: 23890059, 18173375).
|Product Specific Protocols|
|WB protocol for PD-L1/CD274 antibody 17952-1-AP||Download protocol|
|IHC protocol for PD-L1/CD274 antibody 17952-1-AP||Download protocol|
|IF protocol for PD-L1/CD274 antibody 17952-1-AP||Download protocol|
|IP protocol for PD-L1/CD274 antibody 17952-1-AP||Download protocol|
|FC protocol for PD-L1/CD274 antibody 17952-1-AP||Download protocol|
|Click here to view our Standard Protocols|
PD-1/PD-L1 Axis, Rather Than High-Mobility Group Alarmins or CD8+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes, Is Associated With Survival in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Who Received Surgical Resection.
Aberrant PD-1 ligand expression contributes to the myocardial inflammatory injury caused by Coxsackievirus B infection.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res
Targeting CXCR4 potentiates anti-PD-1 efficacy modifying the tumor microenvironment and inhibiting neoplastic PD-1.
Radiation improves antitumor effect of immune checkpoint inhibitor in murine hepatocellular carcinoma model.
Int J Oncol
Effects of three-dimensional collagen scaffolds on the expression profiles and biological functions of glioma cells.
Immunological markers predict the prognosis of patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer.