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Complexin 1 (CPLX1) is a member of the complexin/synaphin gene family, which are cytosolic proteins that function in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Complexins are enriched in neurons where they colocalize with syntaxin and SNAP-25. Complexins bind weakly to syntaxin alone and not at all to synaptobrevin and SNAP-25, but strongly to the SNAP receptor-core complex composed of these three molecules. Compexins also compete with alpha-SNAP for binding to the core complex but not with other interacting molecules, including synaptotagmin I, and regulate the sequential interactions of alpha-SNAP and synaptotagmins with the SNAP receptor during exocytosis. CLPX1 binds to the SNAP receptor complex and disrupts it, leading to the release of transmitters. Alterations of complexins may contribute to the molecular substrate for abnormalities of neural connectivity in severe mental disorders.