Validation Data Gallery
|Positive WB detected in||human serum tissue, mouse liver tissue|
|Positive IHC detected in||human prostate cancer tissue, human lung cancer tissue, human ovary tumor tissue|
Note: suggested antigen retrieval with TE buffer pH 9.0; (*) Alternatively, antigen retrieval may be performed with citrate buffer pH 6.0
|Positive IF detected in||HepG2 cells, HeLa cells|
|Western Blot (WB)||WB : 1:500-1:3000|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||IHC : 1:20-1:200|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||IF : 1:50-1:500|
|Sample-dependent, check data in validation data gallery|
13419-1-AP targets GSK3A in WB, IHC, IF, ELISA applications and shows reactivity with human, mouse, rat samples.
|Tested Reactivity||human, mouse, rat|
|Cited Reactivity||human, mouse|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||GSK3A fusion protein Ag4168|
|Full Name||glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha|
|Calculated molecular weight||483 aa, 51 kDa|
|Observed molecular weight||51 kDa|
|GenBank accession number||BC027984|
|Gene ID (NCBI)||2931|
|Purification Method||Antigen affinity purification|
|Storage Buffer||PBS with 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol pH 7.3.|
|Storage Conditions||Store at -20°C. Stable for one year after shipment. Aliquoting is unnecessary for -20oC storage.|
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha (GSKA) is one of the two functional isoforms encoded by the GSK gene and
acts as a tumor suppressor through its kinase function, targeting many different proteins.
What is the molecular weight of GSKA?
51 kDa. GSKA is a protein serine kinase composed of 483 amino acids and the catalytic domain shares a high
degree of homology with GSKB, although they are encoded on separate genes.
What is the function of GSKA?
Constitutively expressed across all tissues, GSKA has a large number of target proteins and is therefore involved
in many different pathways (PMID: 19923896). It was first identified as a regulator of glycogen metabolism, as
GSK3A phosphorylates the enzyme glycogen synthase, thereby inhibiting glycogenesis, the conversion of glucose
into glycogen (PMID: 6249596). It has since been shown to interact with many other proteins and is one of the
kinases with most substrates in the cell, with roles in cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, and
apoptosis (PMID: 17570479; PMID: 11563964). Typically, GSKA negatively regulates its downstream substrates,
often tagging proteins for ubiquitination. It has important roles in the Wnt and PI3K signaling pathways.
What is the role of GSK3A in neurodegenerative disease?
GSK3A is known to interact with beta-amyloid and tau, proteins that aggregate in areas of the neuronal system
as part of the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. It has been shown that
GSK3A causes abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule-binding protein tau in a way that reflects the
pathology of Alzheimer's disease (PMID: 1334849; PMID: 1336152). GSKA has also been shown to process
amyloid precursor protein to beta-amyloid, another protein that forms the inclusion bodies, or Lewy bodies,
that are one of the hallmarks in Alzheimer's (PMID: 1276154). Another protein involved in the pathology of
Alzheimer's is α-synuclein, which is known to be a substrate for GSK-3β phosphorylation (PMID: 24681994).
Pathol Oncol Res
Knockdown of Sox2 Inhibits OS Cells Invasion and Migration via Modulating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.
J Cell Physiol
The Ubiquitin Ligase SCF(FBXW7α) Promotes ATA3 Degradation.
MYCT1 alters the glycogen shunt by regulating selective translation of RACK1-mediated enzymes.
Front Cell Dev Biol
A GSK3-SRF Axis Mediates Angiotensin II Induced Endothelin Transcription in Vascular Endothelial Cells.
Upregulation of GSK3β Contributes to Brain Disorders in Elderly REGγ-knockout Mice.