Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) is an adapter protein critical to the innate and adaptive immune response.
What is the molecular weight of MYD88?
The molecular weight of MYD88 is 33 kDa.
What is the cellular localization of MYD88?
The subcellular localization of MYD88 is largely confined to the cytoplasm as condensed forms or aggregated structures.
What is the role of MYD88 in the IL-1R signaling pathway?
MYD88 plays a major role in the inflammatory signaling pathways downstream of Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) families. MYD88 links these receptors to IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAK), such as IRAK1 and IRAK2, via protein–protein interactions. The C-terminal TIR domain of MYD88 mediates the interaction with the receptors, whereas the N-terminal death domain of MYD88 associates with IRAK family members (PMID: 25580251). MYD88 acts via its intermediate domain to phosphorylate and thus activate IRAK1, IRAK2, IRF7, and TRAF6 to trigger NF-kappa-B signaling and cytokine secretion as part of the inflammatory response (PMID: 19679662).
What is MYD88’s involvement in disease?
Defects in MYD88 due to deficiency of the protein leads to recurrent pyogenic bacterial infections, including invasive pneumococcal disease. Patients usually die between 1 and 11 months of age, but surviving patients are otherwise healthy with normal resistance to other microbes (PMID: 18669862). Mutations in the MYD88 gene also lead to the development of cancers such as lymphoma (PMID: 21179087) and some autoimmune disorders like ulcerative colitis (PMID: 24189845).