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TLR5 belongs to the Toll-like receptor family which are important in the innate immune response to pathogens. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. TLR5 is known to recognize bacterial flagellin from invading mobile bacteria. TLR5 acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Mutations in TLR5 gene have been associated with both resistance and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus, and susceptibility to Legionnaire disease.