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Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), also known as CD106, is a 110-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. VCAM1 is expressed by cytokine-activated endothelium, interacts with integrin VLA4 (α4β1) present on the surface of leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and signal transduction. It is also expressed either constitutively or inducibly in a variety of other cell types, including vascular smooth muscle cells, differentiating skeletal muscle cells, renal and neural epithelial cells, macrophages (Kupffer cells), dendritic cells, and bone marrow stromal cells (PMID: 7507076, 11359843).