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Globin genes' expression in the β-globin cluster is restricted to erythroid cells, with five different genes expressed during embryonic (e), fetal (Gγ and Aγ), and adult (δ and β) development [PMID:9461381]. Transcriptional activation of globin genes occurs not only by the binding of transcriptional activator proteins to the promoter of the gene being activated but also by a regulatory element located 6 to 18 kb upstream of the β-globin cluster, the locus control region (LCR)[PMID:8791532]. DXL4, also known as BP1, binds to two silencer DNA sequences upstream of the adult human β-globin gene and to a negative control region upstream of the adult δ-globin gene [PMID:11909945].