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Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP5), is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. BMP5 may act as an important signaling molecule within the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head, and may play a potential role in glaucoma pathogenesis. BMP5 is differentially regulated in multiple human cancers.