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Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, commonly known as PCNA, is a protein that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells. This protein is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and is involved in the control of eukaryotic DNA replication by increasing the polymerase's processibility during elongation of the leading strand. PCNA induces a robust stimulatory effect on the 3'-5' exonuclease and 3'-phosphodiesterase, but not apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, APEX2 activities. It has to be loaded onto DNA in order to be able to stimulate APEX2. PCNA protein is highly conserved during evolution; the deduced amino acid sequences of rat and human differ by only 4 of 261 amino acids. PCNA has been used as loading control for proliferating cells. The calculated molecular weight of PCNA is 29 kDa, but modified PCNA is 36kDa （PMID: 1358458）.